Originally formed for the 1983 general election, the constituency boundaries changed following the Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies for the 2010 general election. The constituency now covers most of the northern third of Wiltshire excluding the towns of Swindon to the east, and Chippenham to the southwest. This largely farming area includes the towns of Cricklade, Calne, Royal Wootton Basset and Malmesbury along with many villages including the well-known village of Castle Combe.
North Wiltshire has a long history of returning Conservative candidates to the House of Commons. The seat has been held by James Gray since 1997. In the 2017 general election, James increased his share of the vote to 60.3%.